世界各国语言一览

admin 提交于 周五, 11/24/2017 - 19:06
COUNTRY LANGUAGES
Afghanistan Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism.
Albania Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects
Algeria Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects
American Samoa Samoan 90.6% (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian languages), English 2.9%, Tongan 2.4%, other Pacific islander 2.1%, other 2%
Andorra Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Angola Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Anguilla English (official)
Antigua and Barbuda English (official), local dialects
Argentina Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Armenia Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)
Aruba Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish.
Australia English 79.1%, Chinese 2.1%, Italian 1.9%, other 11.1%, unspecified 5.8% (2001 Census)
Austria German (official nationwide), Slovene (official in Carinthia), Croatian (official in Burgenland), Hungarian (official in Burgenland).
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Bahamas, The English (official), Creole (among Haitian immigrants)
Bahrain Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu
Bangladesh Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Barbados English
Belarus Belarusian, Russian, other
Belgium Dutch (official) 60%, French (official) 40%, German (official) less than 1%, legally bilingual (Dutch and French).
Belize English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib), Creole
Benin French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north).
Bermuda English (official), Portuguese
Bhutan Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Bolivia Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian
Botswana Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census).
Brazil Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
British Virgin Islands English (official)
Brunei Malay (official), English, Chinese
Bulgaria Bulgarian 84.5%, Turkish 9.6%, Roma 4.1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Burkina Faso French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Burma (Myanmar) Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages
Burundi Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Cambodia Khmer (official) 95%, French, English
Cameroon 24 major African language groups, English (official), French (official)
Canada English (official) 59.3%, French (official) 23.2%, other 17.5%
Cabo Verde Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Cayman Islands English
Central African Republic French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national language), tribal languages
Chad French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Chile Spanish
China Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)
Christmas Island English (official), Chinese, Malay
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Malay (Cocos dialect), English
Colombia Spanish
Comoros Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (a blend of Swahili and Arabic)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Congo, Republic of the French (official), Lingala and Monokutuba (lingua franca trade languages), many local languages and dialects (of which Kikongo is the most widespread)
Cook Islands English (official), Maori
Costa Rica Spanish (official), English
Croatia Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)
Cuba Spanish
Cyprus Greek, Turkish, English
Czech Republic Czech
Côte d'Ivoire French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken
Denmark Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Inuit dialect), German (small minority)
Djibouti French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Dominica English (official), French patois
Dominican Republic Spanish
East Timor Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian, English
Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially Quechua)
Egypt Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
El Salvador Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)
Equatorial Guinea Spanish (official), French (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo
Eritrea Afar, Arabic, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya, other Cushitic languages
Estonia Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Ethiopia Amharic, Tigrinya, Oromigna, Guaragigna, Somali, Arabic, other local languages, English (major foreign language taught in schools)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) English
Faroe Islands Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Fiji English (official), Fijian, Hindustani
Finland Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)
France French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
French Guiana French
French Polynesia French 61.1% (official), Polynesian 31.4% (official), Asian languages 1.2%, other 0.3%, unspecified 6% (2002 census)
Gabon French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Gambia, The English (official), Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Gaza Strip Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood)
Georgia Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
Germany German
Ghana English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Gibraltar English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
Greece Greek 99% (official), English, French
Greenland Greenlandic (East Inuit), Danish, English
Grenada English (official), French patois
Guadeloupe French (official) 99%, Creole patois
Guam English 38.3%, Chamorro 22.2%, Philippine languages 22.2%, other Pacific island languages 6.8%, Asian languages 7%, other languages 3.5% (2000 census)
Guatemala Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Guernsey English, French, Norman-French dialect spoken in country districts
Guinea French (official), each ethnic group has its own language
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
Guyana English, Amerindian dialects, Creole, Hindi, Urdu
Haiti French (official), Creole (official)
Holy See (Vatican City) Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Honduras Spanish, Amerindian dialects
Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese), English; both are official
Hungary Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)
Iceland Icelandic, English, Nordic languages, German widely spoken
India English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language.
Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Iran Persian and Persian dialects 58%, Turkic and Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic 1%, Turkish 1%, other 2%
Iraq Arabic, Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Assyrian, Armenian
Ireland English (official) is the language generally used, Irish (official) (Gaelic or Gaeilge) spoken mainly in areas located along the western seaboard
Israel Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language
Italy Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Jamaica English, patois English
Japan Japanese
Jersey English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)
Jordan Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes
Kazakhstan Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
Kenya English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Kiribati I-Kiribati, English (official)
Korea, North Korean
Korea, South Korean, English widely taught in junior high and high school
Kuwait Arabic (official), English widely spoken
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz (official), Russian (official)
Laos Lao (official), French, English, and various ethnic languages
Latvia Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)
Lebanon Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian
Lesotho Sesotho (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
Liberia English 20% (official), some 20 ethnic group languages, of which a few can be written and are used in correspondence
Libya Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Liechtenstein German (official), Alemannic dialect
Lithuania Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Luxembourg Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Macau Cantonese 87.9%, Hokkien 4.4%, Mandarin 1.6%, other Chinese dialects 3.1%, other 3% (2001 census)
Macedonia, Republic of Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Madagascar French (official), Malagasy (official)
Malawi Chichewa 57.2% (official), Chinyanja 12.8%, Chiyao 10.1%, Chitumbuka 9.5%, Chisena 2.7%, Chilomwe 2.4%, Chitonga 1.7%, other 3.6% (1998 census)
Malaysia Bahasa Melayu (official), English, Chinese dialects (Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainan, Foochow), Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, Thai
Maldives Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic), English spoken by most government officials
Mali French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Malta Maltese (official), English (official)
Man, Isle of English, Manx Gaelic
Marshall Islands Marshallese 98.2%, other languages 1.8% (1999 census)
Martinique French, Creole patois
Mauritania Arabic (official), Pulaar, Soninke, French, Hassaniya, Wolof
Mauritius French Creole(French patois) 80.5% French creole speakers also use standard French, Bhojpuri 12.1%, French (official), other 3.7%, unspecified 0.3% (2000 census)
Mayotte Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French (official language) spoken by 35% of the population
Mexico Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional indigenous languages
Micronesia, Federated States of English (official and common language), Trukese, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Kosrean, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi
Moldova Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
Monaco French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque
Mongolia Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Montserrat English
Morocco Arabic (official), Berber dialects, French often the language of business, government, and diplomacy
Mozambique Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Namibia English 7% (official), Afrikaans common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population, German 32%, indigenous languages: Oshivambo, Herero, Nama
Nauru Nauruan (official, a distinct Pacific Island language), English widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes
Nepal Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5% (2001 census)
Netherlands Dutch (official), Frisian (official)
Netherlands Antilles Papiamento 65.4% (a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English dialect), English 15.9% (widely spoken), Dutch 7.3% (official), Spanish 6.1%, Creole 1.6%, other 1.9%, unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
New Caledonia French (official), 33 Melanesian-Polynesian dialects
New Zealand English (official), Maori (official)
Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)
Niger French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Nigeria English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Niue Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
Norfolk Island English (official), Norfolk a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian
Northern Mariana Islands Philippine languages 24.4%, Chinese 23.4%, Chamorro 22.4%, English 10.8%, other Pacific island languages 9.5%, other 9.6% (2000 census)
Norway Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Oman Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Pakistan  Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official and lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and other 8% 
Palau  Palauan 64.7% official in all islands except Sonsoral (Sonsoralese and English are official), Tobi (Tobi and English are official), and Angaur (Angaur, Japanese, and English are official), Filipino 13.5%, English 9.4%, Chinese 5.7%, Carolinian 1.5%, Japanese 1.5%, other Asian 2.3%, other languages 1.5% (2000 census) 
Panama  Spanish (official), English 14%; note - many Panamanians bilingual 
Papua New Guinea  Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca, English spoken by 1%-2%, Motu spoken in Papua region 
Paraguay  Spanish (official), Guarani (official) 
Peru  Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages 
Philippines  two official languages - Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English; eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan 
Pitcairn Islands  English (official), Pitcairnese (mixture of an 18th century English dialect and a Tahitian dialect) 
Poland  Polish 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census) 
Portugal  Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official - but locally used) 
Puerto Rico  Spanish, English 
Qatar  Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language 
Romania  Romanian (official), Hungarian, German 
Russia  Russian, many minority languages 
Rwanda  Kinyarwanda (official) universal Bantu vernacular, French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers 
Réunion  French (official), Creole widely used 
Saint Helena  English 
Saint Kitts and Nevis  English 
Saint Lucia  English (official), French patois 
Saint Pierre and Miquelon  French (official) 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  English, French patois 
Samoa  Samoan (Polynesian), English 
San Marino  Italian 
Saudi Arabia  Arabic 
Senegal  French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka 
Serbia and Montenegro  Serbian 95%, Albanian 5% 
Seychelles  Creole 91.8%, English 4.9% (official), other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census) 
Sierra Leone  English (official, regular use limited to literate minority), Mende (principal vernacular in the south), Temne (principal vernacular in the north), Krio (English-based Creole, spoken by the descendants of freed Jamaican slaves who were settled in the Freetown area, a lingua franca and a first language for 10% of the population but understood by 95%) 
Singapore  Mandarin 35%, English 23%, Malay 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census) 
Slovakia  Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census) 
Slovenia  Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census) 
Solomon Islands  Melanesian pidgin in much of the country is lingua franca; English is official but spoken by only 1%-2% of the population 
Somalia  Somali (official), Arabic, Italian, English 
South Africa  IsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001 census) 
Spain  Castilian Spanish 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%; note - Castilian is the official language nationwide; the other languages are official regionally 
Sri Lanka  Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%, other 8% 
Sudan  Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English 
Suriname  Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese 
Svalbard  Norwegian, Russian 
Swaziland  English (official, government business conducted in English), siSwati (official) 
Sweden  Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities 
Switzerland  German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, other 3.3% (2000 census) 
Syria  Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood 
São Tomé and Príncipe  Portuguese (official) 
Taiwan  Mandarin Chinese (official), Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects 
Tajikistan  Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business 
Tanzania  Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages 
Thailand  Thai, English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects 
Togo  French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north) 
Tokelau  Tokelauan (a Polynesian language), English 
Tonga  Tongan, English 
Trinidad and Tobago  English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish, Chinese 
Tunisia  Arabic (official and one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce) 
Turkey  Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek 
Turkmenistan  Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7% 
Turks and Caicos Islands  English (official) 
Tuvalu  Tuvaluan, English, Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui) 
Uganda  English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic 
Ukraine  Ukrainian (official) 67%, Russian 24%; small Romanian-, Polish-, and Hungarian-speaking minorities 
United Arab Emirates  Arabic (official), Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu 
United Kingdom  English, Welsh (about 26% of the population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland) 
United States  English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census) 
Uruguay  Spanish, Portunol, or Brazilero (Portuguese-Spanish mix on the Brazilian frontier) 
Uzbekistan  Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1% 
Vanuatu  local languages (more than 100) 72.6%, pidgin (known as Bislama or Bichelama) 23.1%, English 1.9%, French 1.4%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.7% (1999 Census) 
Venezuela  Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects 
Vietnam  Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian) 
Virgin Islands  English 74.7%, Spanish or Spanish Creole 16.8%, French or French Creole 6.6%, other 1.9% (2000 census) 
Wallis and Futuna  Wallisian 58.9% (indigenous Polynesian language), Futunian 30.1%, French 10.8%, other 0.2% (2003 census) 
West Bank  Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians), English (widely understood) 
Western Sahara  Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic 
Yemen  Arabic 
Zambia  English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages 
Zimbabwe  English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects 

参考资料:http://www.internetworldstats.com/languages.htm 

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